On farm conservation protects threatened plants in their natural habitats and takes into account social and cultural factors such as farmers’ knowledge. It plays an important role to enable plants to continue to evolve and adapt with the changing conditions. In biological word it means the conservation of genetic diversity of traditional crops in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties in traditional farming systems.
On farm conservation involve the maintenance of genetic diversity in the locations where it is encountered in situ. It is the sustainable management of genetic diversity of locally developed crop varieties by farmers within traditional agricultural, horticultural or agri – silvicultural systems. It involves the maintenance of traditional crop varieties or cropping systems by farmers within traditional agricultural systems.
The conservation of cultivated forms, actual varieties, old cultivars and landraces in the production process is included in on farm conservation, which is a dynamic conservation form, because it’s referring to a continuity of evolution process.
On farm conservation has triple dynamics – environmental factors include climate, edaphic, biotic and global changes, economic factors and social factors. It involves lots of simple activates which depends on the species concerned and their characteristics, distribution, genetic variation, habitats, economic importance, the degree of threat and the resource available.
In on farm conservation either the focus is the conservation of genetic diversity within a particular farming system or is the conservation of the traditional farming system. Dispute the great importance and usability of this method the matter of regret is that there have been only a few attempts to scientifically study on farm conservation and most of the time farmer undertake the conservation not scientists which should have been the other way.